Camelina Agronomics

Summary: Nitrogen and water availabilities are two important environmental factors affecting crop growth and yield. Effects of applied Nitrogen and water deficit imposition on photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and shoot and root biomass accumulation in camelina and canola were compared in a greenhouse. Water deficit significantly decreased Pn, E, gs, and shoot/root biomass ratio in both crops. The relative reduction of Pn, E, and gs caused by water deficit was greater in canola than in camelina. Under drought conditions, applied N enhanced Pn and gs but had less pronounced effects on E in camelina. Camelina maintained higher Pn...

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Summary: Currently, camelina is not used as a cover crop but it has the potential to be used as such in maize and soybean cropping systems. The objective of this study was to determine the agronomic performance of winter camelina intersown as a cover crop into standing soybean or maize prior to their harvest. Experiments were conducted in Fargo, ND ...

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Summary: Nitrogen (N) and water availabilities are two important environmental factors affecting crop growth and yield. Effects of applied N and water deficit imposition on photosynthesis rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), and shoot and root biomass accumulation in camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] and canola (Brassica napus L.) were compared in a greenhouse. Water deficit significantly decreased ...

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Summary: Camelina is an industrial oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family with multiple uses. Currently, camelina is not used as a cover crop, but it has the potential to be used as such in maize-soybean-wheat cropping systems. The objectives of this study were to determine the agronomic performance and nutrient scavenging potential of winter camelina in comparison with other common ...

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Summary: Camelina is a promising low-input, high yielding biodiesel crop that can be suitable to grow on marginal lands and is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids. The objective of the study was to compare the rate of growth in different varieties of C. sativa in response to salt stress. Three biological replicates were collected from three varieties of ...

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Summary: Interest in growing camelina is increasing for animal nutrition and for biofuel. A trial was carried out in a greenhouse with camelina cv. ‘Calena’ cultivated in pots in order to evaluate the effect of residual poultry manure and mineral fertilization after a crop of barley and to determine the grain’s yield and quality. The treatments applied to the first ...

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Summary: False flax (Camelina sativa L.), is an oil plant, of the Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) family. It is a rediscovered crop with multiple uses, it is a frost proof, low-soil and climatic conditions plant. In Poland the variety is not very widespread, despite of its health benefits. The particular value of camelina oil is given by its content in polyunsaturated fatty ...

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Summary: To gain additional value from land during winter fallow periods in corn (Zea mays L.)–soybean [(Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations, growers in the Upper Midwest are considering winter annual oilseed crops such as field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) and winter camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz]. The objective of this study was to (i) explore trade-offs between soybean and winter ...

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Summary: Camelina is considered a relatively new oilseed in both Europe and North America even though its history as a crop dates back to the Bronze Age. Camelina has recently received renewed interest from both the scientific community and bio-based industries around the world. The main attractive features of this species are: drought and frost tolerance, disease and pest resistance, ...

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Summary: The distribution and abundance of three Camelina species introduced to Canada is unknown, but critical for evaluating the risks associated with unconfined release of transgenic Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz (2n = 40). Furthermore, previous reports suggest Canadian populations of Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex DC. vary for ploidy and ability to hybridize with C. sativa. We completed 8 weeks of ...

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Summary: Camelina has potential to diversify and intensify dryland wheat-based crop production in the US Great Plains. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate camelina as a fallow replacement crop in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) − fallow (W-F) crop rotation system across five locations in the Great Plains. Results showed both winter wheat and camelina grain yields varied across locations. ...

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Evaluating agronomic responses of camelina to seeding date under rain-fed conditions – H.Y. Sintim, V.D. Zheljazkov, A.K. Obour, A.G. Garcia, and T.K. Foulke – Agronomy 2016 Summary: The potential to use camelina (Camelina sativa L.) as a bioenergy crop has increased the need to develop management practices that would improve sustainable production. This study evaluated the effects by cultivars (Blaine ...

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Summary: Use of winter cover crops in Minnesota and South Dakota has been slow to be adopted. The short growing season and potential for late wet springs make cover crops risky to farmers with little economic return. The use of cash cover crops in this area offers the standard advantages of other cover crops, with the added benefit of harvesting ...

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Summary: Camelina is an emerging oilseed crop suitable for biofuel production in dryland cropping systems of the northwestern United States. Currently, camelina growers have limited herbicide options available for weed control. Tolerance of camelina to PRE applications of quinclorac, S-metolachlor, dimethenamid-P, pendimethalin, and pyroxasulfone was evaluated at two locations (Kalispell in 2009 and 2010, and Huntley in 2010 and 2011) ...

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Summary: The agronomic performance of Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz (camelina or false flax) sown in autumn and spring over two consecutive years was tested in northern Italy. Among the tested genotypes, CAM 40 showed the most adaptability to unfavorable environmental conditions but limited yield plasticity and CAM 172 demonstrated the most adaptability to favorable environmental conditions but high plasticity for ...

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Summary: Five camelina cultivars of camelina species (Camelina sativa L.) were grown in the field at two levels of nitrogen (N) under the climate conditions of Hokkaido Island, Japan. The results of the study suggested that the seed pod and rachis are more important for photosynthetic carbon supply to the seed than the upper leaves. The presence of attributes like ...

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Summary: As an evaluation of the effects of growth conditions on the quality of camelina seed, samples originating from 11 remote locations in Europe and in Scandinavia were analysed for content of oil, crude protein and crude fibre. Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0926669002000912

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Summary: Camelina is an under-utilised Brassicaceae oilseed crop with promising food and non-food applications due to an unusual fatty acid composition of its seed oil. Therefore, high oil content and other seed quality characteristics are important to enhance the attractiveness of the camelina crop both for growers and processors. Results suggest that variation in agronomic and seed quality characters of ...

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Summary: The hypothesis of this study was that spring camelina (Camelina sativa L.) could be grown as a high-value crop under the moist, cool conditions of the Maritime Provinces in Canada and seeding date, seeding rate, and type of seeder will modify productivity and oil composition. The objectives were (1) to determine the optimum seeding date and seeding rate for ...

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Summary: Evaluations of cultivar and applied N were performed at Truro, NS, Harrington, PEI, and Hartland, NB, in 2005 and 2006. The results show that the selection of cultivar is an important determinant for the potential success or failure of C. sativa production. Differences in plant stand, plant height, seed yield, oil content and fatty acid profile were found among ...

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Summary: Crops of CS15 camelina and InVigor 9590 canola, grown under field conditions in Canada’s Salinity Tolerance Testing Facility, were evaluated for plant emergence, height, shoot biomass, grain yield, oil content and composition. Plant height differences between the camelina and the canola increased as salinity increased. Grain yields under salinity relative to the salt-free control decreased more for the camelina ...

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Summary: Evaluation of seed and oil yield response of camelina to nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur nutrition in South Central Chile. Two experiments were conducted in four environments in 2008 and 2009. Results indicate that camelina, usually regarded as a low-input crop, may respond to high N fertilization rates when grown in environmental conditions that maximize seed yield potential. Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0926669012005900

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Summary: Evaluation of several planting dates and two planting methods for camelina stand establishment and seed yield. Field experiments were conducted for three years at four distinct rainfed agro-environments in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Although camelina has excellent cold hardiness, the best plant stands were achieved with the late-winter and early-spring plantings. We recommend late February–early March as the best ...

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Summary: Camelina, a member of the mustard family, exceeded flax and rape in yield of seed per acre at Ottawa, Ontario, and at Fort Vermilion, Alberta. The oil content of the 10 varieties in the test ranged from 34.3% to 38% at Ottawa and from 37.1% to 42.0% at Fort Vermilion. Camelina matured 3 to 4 weeks earlier than flax. ...

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Summary: In Montana, camelina is emerging as a high-value, multi-use crop with applications in food, feed, and industry. A diversity of start-up industries and government entities are in the process of sorting out the different uses for this crop. The multiple possible uses suggest to these authors that there may be a stable market demand for farm gate seed. Link: ...

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Summary: Knowledge of germination temperature optima/range for brassicas is critical for inclusion of these crops into crop rotations. Variability in Brassica seed germination in response to temperature indicates that there may be the opportunity for flexibility in the planting dates over which these crops can be sown. Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0926669009001344

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Summary: This study investigated the response of Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz to the availability of N and water availability and their effect on photosynthesis and yield parameters. Plant height, root and shoot dry matter, root:shoot ratio, xylem pressure potential, yield components, photosynthetic parameters and instantaneous water-use efficiency were remarkably influenced by water and nitrogen supply. Results suggest that the regulative ...

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Summary: Examination of physiological and biochemical alterations during cold stress treatment. Particular emphasis on the post-translational regulation of the plasma membrane. Results suggest that cold stress and recovery in camelina and rapeseed are associated with PM H+-fluxes that may be regulated by specific translational and post-translational modifications. Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0176161713000357

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Summary: An imaging method was developed to evaluate crop species differences in root hair morphology using high resolution scanners, and to determine if the method could also detect root hair responses to soil water availability. This novel approach to in situ rhizosphere imaging should be useful in future studies of rhizosphere interactions and crop water and nutrient management. Link: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11104-010-0335-0#page-1

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Summary: Temperature response and the potential for heat acclimation were evaluated for Camelina sativa. Moderate heat stress caused a reduction in camelina seed yield. The fact that photosynthesis exhibited no acclimation to moderate heat stress will likely impact the development of camelina and other cool season Brassicaceae as sources of bioenergy in a warmer world. Link: http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1007/s00425-012-1691-1

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Summary: With increased emphasis for diesel substitution, production of brown mustard, canola and camelina used as biodiesels may increase in the USA High Plains. The aim of this study was to elucidate the growth pattern of these crops when spring-planted (2005-2007) in western Nebraska. Fatty acid composition was dramatically different between the crops as previously reported. The growth patterns of ...

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Summary: Mixed cropping peas with false flax, a brassica oil seed crop, in additive arrangements had a significant suppressive effect on weed coverage. Weed suppression was probably achieved by a mutually enhanced competitiveness of both crop components, indicating a mechanism based on resource allocation, but further research is needed for a better understanding of weed suppressive traits in pea–false flax ...

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Summary: Spring barley is the most widely grown cereal in Lithuania. One of several organic solutions to the problem of spreading weeds lies in growing Camelina sativa as cover crop between the barley plantings. A series of experiments confirmed that camelina could effectively limit the prevalence of weeds under certain soil properties and weather conditions. Drilling camelina in strips between ...

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Summary: Mixed cropping with oil crops and the integration of hedges offer chances to increase land use efficiency, decrease GHG emissions and maintain food production. Link: http://orgprints.org/17119/1/11_Paulsen.pdf

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Summary: Organic mixed cropping systems of peas, lupins or spring wheat together with camelina were tested in field trials over three years at two sites. In mixed cropping systems, false flax could compensate for yield gaps of the legumes. Yields of spring wheat in mixed cropping were normally lower than the corresponding yields of the sole cropping system. Advantages in ...

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Summary: Pea and camelina intercropping succeeded in spreading the crop yield loss burden. Peas did well in low slope positions, while camelina established better in upper slope positions. Relative emergence between the crop and weeds was critical. Where camelina was able to emerge and establish faster than the weeds, dry matter production was higher. Therefore, practices contributing to quick crop ...

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Summary: A 2-year field study was conducted in Montana under dryland conditions to evaluate the effects of stand reduction at rosette and bolting growth stages on camelina grain yield and quality and to determine if camelina has compensatory ability for grain yield after a stand loss. Camelina showed good compensatory ability for grain yield across a wide range of plant ...

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Summary: Description of the phenological development of C. sativa is proposed utilizing the extended BBCH (Biologische Bundesantalt, Bundessortenamt and Chemische Industrie) scale (Meier et al., 2009). The different phenological growth stages are described, utilizing both the two- and three-digit BBCH coding system. Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2010.00444.x/abstract

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Summary: Linseed dodder origins were examined at two locations, two seeding dates and two N levels for productive capacity and seed quality. The fatty acid pattern of the oil was nearly the same in all varieties.  The amino acid composition of the protein and the mineral contents of the seeds indicate no influence by the test parameters. Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/lipi.19860880702/abstract

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Summary: Two field experiments were conducted (2008 to 2010) in Saskatchewan and Alberta, Canada, to determine the effect of N fertilizer application on camelina plant establishment, seed and straw yield, total N uptake in seed and straw, seed oil and protein concentration, N fertilizer use efficiency and percent recovery of applied N (%NR) in seed. Camelina responded to fairly high ...

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Summary: Influence of joint applications of nitrogen and sulphur on Camelina was studied. Increasing levels of nitrogen reduced the oil content of seeds but increased the protein content. Increased levels of sulphur only slightly stimulated the oil content. A negative correlation was discovered between the oil and protein content in the seeds. Increasing N levels significantly increased the total oil ...

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Summary: Camelina holds unique agronomic traits which could substantially reduce and possibly eliminate requirements for tillage and annual weed control. Its compatibility with reduced tillage systems, cover crops, its low seeding rate and competitiveness with weeds could enable Camelina not only to have the lowest input cost of any oilseed, but also be compatible with the goals of reducing energy ...

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Summary: Current cropping systems in the USA may not be capable of producing adequate amounts of biofuel feedstock at competitive prices to petroleum. This Montana-based study (2007-2010) compared crop productivity, water balance, and key weed and arthropod pests of 2-yr oilseed-durum rotations under zero tillage. Rotations included durum with three Brassicaceae including camelina. Study found oilseed-durum rotations can be used ...

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Summary: We report for the first time that application of optimized PBZ doses can be a potential strategy to achieve higher seed and oil yield from Camelina, which holds great promise as a biofuel crop. A field-based micro-trial setup was established in a randomized block design and the study was performed twice within a span of five months (October 2010 ...

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Summary: Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) and Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) can provide a domestic, renewable, non-food alternative to imported oil sources for bioenergy and industrial purposes. However, limited information exists concerning N fertilizer guidelines for these emerging oilseed crops. Therefore, a replicated greenhouse study was conducted to assess the growth and yield response of calendula and camelina to N fertility. ...

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Summary: A two year variety trial in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate the performance of 15 Camelina varieties in two distinct geographical regions in the Western USA. Six of the varieties were in the highest yielding group in all environments, including irrigated environments. Five of the varieties have been identified as containing favorable alleles for yield and drought tolerance. Camelina ...

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Summary: Study measured the crop water use of a November-through-April Camelina crop in Arizona using frequent measurements of soil water contents. The crop was grown under surface irrigation using five treatment levels of soil water depletion. Varying total irrigation water amounts to treatments did not significantly affect yield, whereas total crop evapotranspiration was increased for the most frequently irrigated treatment. ...

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Summary: Studies of Camelina’s water use, irrigation management, and agronomic characteristics were conducted (2008 and 2010) in an arid environment at Maricopa, Arizona, to evaluate the effectiveness of previously developed heat unit and remote sensing basal crop coefficient (Kcb) methods for predicting camelina crop evapotranspiration (ET) and irrigation scheduling. Link: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usdaarsfacpub/1259/

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Summary: Evapotranspiration over Camelina was evaluated for an experimental plot in Maricopa, Arizona between December 2006 and April 2007. Camelina was grown in a 1.3-ha field in a randomized design. A surface energy balance model, utilizing meteorological and radiometric observations within plots was implemented to estimate latent heat fluxes from the camelina canopy at 15-min intervals during most of the ...

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Summary: Little is known about camelina production in Florida but research is underway to determine optimum planting dates and nitrogen rates and other management practices. Some breeding work for yield or oil content is being done because camelina offers potential as a short-season biofuel crop that could fit into many different cropping systems in Florida. No data is available on ...

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